POLA GRAMMAR TECHNIQUE FOR GRAMMATICAL RELATIONEXTRACTION IN MALAY LANGUAGE
Mohd Juzaiddin Ab Aziz1Fatimah Ahmad>2Teknologi & Sains Maklumat, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
A basic sentence in Malay language is either a combination of NP+NP, NP+VP, NP+PP, or NP+AP. The language is a structure phrase grammar. The Context Free Grammar was developed by Nik Safiah (1993). However, in order to derive a parse tree for a syntactic process, the CFG was found to be complicated due to many ambiguities for part of speech. This paper shall introduce a pola-grammar technique that does not require lexical process of retrieving the part of speech for each word. The techniques used are the automata and the finite states. During the process, sentences will be grouped into an adjunct, a subject, a post-subject, a conjunction and a predicate. The predicate consists of a verb, a conjunction, an object and an adverb. An adverb consists of a verb, a conjunction and an adverb. These components which are in sequence order are called pola. The subject, the object and the verb can be identified by making use of the pola in the sentence. This can be done by spliting the sentence into its pola. The information in the predicate will be processed to get the verb and object.
AN ENHANCED ANYCAST ROUTING PROTOCOL:NEAREST PIM-SM EXTENSION WITH LOAD-BALANCING SCHEMES
Liew Chee Sun, Ling Teck Chaw, Su Moon Ting, Por Lip Yee, Phang Keat Keong,Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology,University of Malayasa,
The primary issue with anycast routing protocol is the tradeoff between performance and reliability. An anycast routing protocol that can provide shorter end-to-end delay does not always has lower packet loss, and vice versa. This paper focuses on achieving short end-to-end delay and low packet loss, and proposes an enhancement to the anycast routing protocol called the nearest Protocol Independent Multicast – Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) extension. This extension supports two load-balancing schemes, i.e. shortest-path and round-robin. The UMJaNetSim network simulator is used as the simulation environment for evaluating the nearest PIM-SM extension. Other necessary protocols such as Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6 (ICMPv6) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) are implemented as well. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanisms for anycast routing improve the performance by reducing end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio.
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